Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing water-like fluid. The cysts vary in size and, as they accumulate more fluid, they can grow very large.
Although kidneys usually are the most severely affected organs, polycystic kidney disease can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. The disease causes a variety of serious complications.
A common complication of polycystic kidney disease is high blood pressure. Kidney failure is another common problem for people with polycystic kidney disease.
Polycystic kidney disease varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. Lifestyle changes and medical treatments may help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications, such as high blood pressure.
Causes–Abnormal genes cause polycystic kidney disease, and the genetic defects mean the disease runs in families. Rarely, a genetic mutation can be the cause of polycystic kidney disease.
There are two types of polycystic kidney disease, caused by different genetic flaws:
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Signs and symptoms of ADPKD often develop between the ages of 30 and 40. In the past, this type was called adult polycystic kidney disease, but children can develop the disorder.
Only one parent needs to have the disease in order for it to pass along to the children. If one parent has ADPKD, each child has a 50 percent chance of getting the disease. This form accounts for about 90 percent of cases of polycystic kidney disease.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). This type is far less common than is ADPKD. The signs and symptoms often appear shortly after birth. Sometimes, symptoms don’t appear until later in childhood or during adolescence.
Both parents must have abnormal genes to pass on this form of the disease. If both parents carry a gene for this disorder, each child has a 25 percent chance of getting the disease.
Researchers have identified two genes associated with ADPKD and one associated with ARPKD.
In some cases, a person with ADPKD has no known family history of the disease. However, it’s possible that someone in the affected person’s family actually did have the disease, but didn’t show signs or symptoms before dying of other causes.
In a smaller percentage of cases where no family history is present, ADPKD results from a spontaneous gene mutation.
Symptoms-Polycystic kidney disease symptoms may include:
High blood pressure
Back or side pain
Increase in the size of your abdomen
Blood in your urine
Urinary tract or kidney infections
Complications-Complications associated with polycystic kidney disease include:
High blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is a common complication of polycystic kidney disease. Untreated, high blood pressure can cause further damage to your kidneys and increase your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Loss of kidney function. Progressive loss of kidney function is one of the most serious complications of polycystic kidney disease. Nearly half of those with the disease have kidney failure by age 60.
Polycystic kidney disease can interfere with the ability of your kidneys to keep wastes from building to toxic levels, a condition called uremia. As the disease worsens, end-stage kidney (renal) failure may result, necessitating ongoing kidney dialysis or a transplant to prolong your life.
Pregnancy complications. Pregnancy is successful for most women with polycystic kidney disease. In some cases, however, women may develop a life-threatening disorder called preeclampsia. Those most at risk are women who have high blood pressure before they become pregnant.
Growth of cysts in the liver. The likelihood of developing liver cysts for someone with polycystic kidney disease increases with age. While both men and women develop cysts, women often develop larger cysts. Cyst growth may be aided by female hormones.
Development of an aneurysm in the brain. A balloon-like bulge in a blood vessel (aneurysm) in your brain can cause bleeding (hemorrhage) if it ruptures. People with polycystic kidney disease have a higher risk of aneurysm, especially those younger than age 50.
The risk is higher if you have a family history of aneurysm or if you have uncontrolled high blood pressure.
Heart valve abnormalities. As many as one in four adults with polycystic kidney disease develop mitral valve prolapse. When this happens, the valve no longer closes properly, which allows blood to leak backward.
Colon problems. Weaknesses and pouches or sacs in the wall of the colon (diverticulosis) may develop in people with polycystic kidney disease
Chronic pain. Pain is a common symptom for people with polycystic kidney disease. It often occurs in your side or back. The pain can also be associated with a urinary tract infection, a kidney stone or a malignancy.
Well selected Homoeopathic remedies are effective for polycystic kidney disease and its associates complaints . Some of the important remedies are given below-
APIS MELLIFICA 30-Apis mel is one of the top remedies for polycystic kidney disease with swelling of face, feet, and feet. The urine is scanty and high coloured. The patient is drowsy, apathetic and has a bruised feeling all over. There is burning and soreness when urinating. The urine is loaded with blood corpuscles and albumin. There is pain in the kidney region and also in head, back and legs. The skin becomes pale. There is a feeling of suffocation in Apis person and he does not see how he get another breath. Apis is best adapted to psoric and allergic constitutions.
ARSENICUM ALBUM 30-Arsenic alb is another effective remedy for poycystic kidney disease. Arsenic alb is best suited to persons of nervous constitutions. The urine is scanty, dark , loaded with casts and albumin. There is great anguish and restlessness, also great fear of death and disease. The person drink warm water in small quantities and short intervals. The face is swollen. There is convulsions with fear of death. Another feature is the presence of watery diarrhea in all stages of the disease. There is edema, pale skin , which has a waxen appearance. Frequent attacks of dyspnea, more at midnight.
ARALIA HISPIDA 30-Aralia hispida is found to be effective for high level of creatinine in blood. There is dropsy of renal origin. Urinary tract infection is present. Urine is scanty leading to complete suppression of urine. Renal diseases with constipation.
AMPELOPSIS QUINQUEFOLIA 30- Ampelopsis quinquefolia is another effective remedy for high level of creatinine in blood. There is uraemia or uremic coma. Vomiting, purging, tenesmus , cold sweat and collapse are the leading symptoms.
CANTHARIS 30—Cantharis is best for polycystic kidney disease with nephritis. There is cutting pain in the lumbar region , kidney region very sensitive. Constant desire to urinate, and having intolerable tenesmus , cutting before, during and after urination. Urine is mixed with blood and passed drop by drop. Dropsy after scarlet fever.
CONVALLARIA 30– Convallaria is excellent in polycystic kidney disease with heart symptoms. There is extremely rapid and irregular action of the heart, and general anasarca and ascites from mitral insufficiency. There is a sensation as if heart ceased beating, then starting very rapidly. Palpitation from least exertion.
CUPRUM ARSENITUM 3x-Cuprum ars is also a very effective remedy for polycystic kidney disease with high level of creatinine in blood. There is kidney inefficiency and uremia. The urine smell like garlic. Urine of high specific gravity increased, acetones and diacetic acid.
CUPRUM ACETICUM 3X-Cuprum aceticum is best for polycystic kidney disease with kidney failure. The tongue is pale , coated with lot of mucus. Anemia. Pulse rapid. The patient is chilly. Breathlessness with dry cough. Cannot eat or drink without retching.
DIGITALIS PURPUREA 30-Digitalis purpurea is excellent for polycystic kidney disease with heart symptoms. There is continued urging for urination but passes in drops, which is dark, hot, burning with sharp cutting or throbbing pain at neck of bladder as if a straw was being thrust back and forth, worse at night.Urine is ammonical and turbid. The least movement causes violent palpitation and a sensation as if heart would cease beating , if he moves, must to hold the breath and keep still. Irregular heart , especially with mitral valve disease .There is also having rheumatic pain and faintness at the stomach.
BELLADONNA -Belladonna is another best remedy for polycystic kidney disease with albuminuria. There is inflammation of the kidney with piercing burning pain in the lumbar region , returning periodically with increased severity. Urine scanty with tenesmus, dark and turbid loaded with phosphates.
HELLEBORUS NIGER 30– Hellebotus is best for polycystic kidney disease with high creatinine in blood with uremia and unconsciousness. Pupils dilated and insensible to light. Convulsion is present. The body have a strong urinous odor.
KALI CHLORICUM 30– Kali chloricum is best for polycystic kidney disease with violent nephritis . The urine is scanty, dark, albuminous and contains casts.
LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 30—Lycopodium is an effective remedy for polycystic kidney disease with kidney failure. There is high level of creatinine in blood. Urine scanty , cries before urinating, red sand in urine, must strain, suppressed or retained. Urine milky and turbid. Sometimes haematuria . Urine is burning and hot. The right kidney is mainly affected. The patient experiences impotency.The patient likes warm food and drink, also there is intense craving for sweets.
MERCURIUS CORROSIVUS 30-Mercurius cor is indicated in large white kidney. The urine is scanty, red, with albumin and casts. The urine is hot , burning and passed drop by drop with much tenesmus of bladder. There are lumbar pain, and great dyspnea. Also there is swelling of the feet.
PLUMBUM METALLICUM 30-Plumbum met is prescribed where there is granular degenerations of the kidneys with tendency to uraemic convulsions.Kidney contracted. There is dropsy, sallow face, emaciation and edema about the ankles. The urine is albuminous having low specific gravity. The patient is always constipated.
PHOSPHORUS 30– Phosphorus is best for polycystic kidney disease with nephritis.There is hematuria in acute nephritis, urinates pure blood. Urine turbid, brown with red sediment. There is lassitude of the whole body , hands and feet icy cold, sleepiness. The weakness is more in the morning, and there is heat in the body without thirst, especially in the evening.The person is indisposed to work, is giddy, forgetful and has a heavy headache, particularly in the forehead. There is edema of the upper eyelids and face. Vomiting and gastric symptoms are usually present.
TEREBINTH 30-Terebinth is excellent for polycystic kidney disease with congestion of the kidneys. There is a burning drawing pain in the region of the kidney extending along the ureters. The urine is dark and smoky.Also the urine is albuminous and bloody. Terebinth is prescribed where uremia with spasms and lock jaw is present which may be occurring every 15 minutes. There is violent convulsions producing most frightful opisthotonos.
SERUM ANGUILLAE 6X—Serum Anguilae is one of the best remedies for polycystic kidney disease with kidney failure. There is high level of creatinine in blood. It is very effective in acute nephritis. Kidney failure. It is prescribed when hypertension and oliguria without oedema is present. Urine contains albumin.
About the Author:
Dr. K S Gopi, BSc, BHMS, MD, Former Professor, Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India have got three decades of teaching and research experiences in the field of Homoeopathy. He has published many research papers in national and international journals.
Books published by him are : Encyclopedia of medicinal plants used in Homoeopathy 10 vols, Homoeopathy a complete family health guide, Easy Prescriber, Herbarium, A text book of Homoeopathic pharmacy, Diseases of skin with Homoeopathic management, Cosmetic medicines in Homoeopathy, Homoeopathy for Baby and child, Sports medicines in Homoeopathy, Cure kidney stones with Homoeopathy, Cure Dengue fever, Chikungunya and Malaria with Homoeopathy, Materia Medica 5 vols, Control hypertension without Medicines, Sexual life- problems and solutions.